ARTICLE REFERENCES

Morrissey et al., 2004. Beyond Parity Workbook for Action. Chicago, IL: DHHS OWH Region V.

Austin, L., What's Holding You Back? 8 Critical Choices for Women's Success, Basics Books, 2000.

Benz, E., et al., Increasing Academic Internal Medicine’s Investment in Female Faculty, Amer. J. of Med., 105:459-63, 1998.

Bickel, J., Wara, D., Atkinson, B.F., Cohen, L.S., Dunn, M., Hostler, S., Johnson, T.R.B., Morahan, P., Rubenstein, A.H., Sheldon, G.F., and Stokes, E. Increasing Women’s Leadership in Academic Medicine: Report of the AAMC Project Implementation Committee. Acad Med in press, Oct 2002. (AAMC Women in Medicine)

Bickel, J., Women in Medicine: The Work that Remains, J. of Women’s Imaging, 3:1-2, 2001

Bickel, J., Gender Equity in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Status Report, J. of Women’s Health & Gender-Based Medicine, 10:261-270, 2001.

Bickel, J., Women in Medicine: Getting in, Growing & Advancing, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2000. [805-499-9774 http://www.sagepub.com]

Bickel, J., Scenarios for Success--Enhancing Women Physicians' Professional Advancement, Western J. of Med., 162:165-9, 1995.

Bickel, J., Croft, K., Marshall R., Enhancing the Environment for Women in Academic Medicine: Resources & Pathways, Washington DC: AAMC, 1996
(Enhancing the Environment for Women in Academic Medicine)

Buckley, L, et al. Obstacles to promotion? Values of women faculty about career success and recognition. Acad. Med. 75:283-8, 2000

Carr, P., et al., Relation of Family Responsibilities and Gender to the Productivity and Career Satisfaction of Medical Faculty, Ann. Intern. Med., 129:532-8, 1998.

Chin, E.L. (editor), This Side of Doctoring: Reflections from Women in Medicine, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002.

Crittenden, A. The Price of Motherhood: Why the Most Important Job in the World Is Still the Least Valued, New York: Metropolitan Books, 2001.

Elgin, S.H., Genderspeak: Men, Women, and the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-defense, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1993.

Estrich, S. Sex & Power, Penguin, 2000.

Etzkowitz, H., et al, Athena unbound: the advancement of women in science and technology,
Cambridge UK: Cambridge U Press, 2000.

Evans, Gail: Play like a man, win like a woman, Broadway Bks, 2000.

Fletcher, J., Disappearing Acts: Gender, Power and Relational Practices at Work. MIT Press, 2000.

Foster, S.W., et al, Results of a Gender-climate and Work-environment Survey at a Midwestern Academic Health Center, Acad. Med. 75:653-660, 2000.

Fox, G. "Balancing Act: A Work in Progress Notes." Invited Special Article, Academic Psychiatry, 31:138 - 142, April, 2007.

Fox, G., Schwartz, A., Hart, K. M. "Work-Family Balance and Academic Advancement in Medical Schools." Special Article, Academic Psychiatry, 2006; 30:3, 227 -234.

Frank, E., et al., Basic demographic and professional characteristics of US women physicians. West J Med. 166:179-84, 1997.

Fried, L., et al., Career Development for Women in Academic Medicine: Multiple Interventions in a Department of Medicine, Journal of American Medical Association, 276:898-905, 1996.

Friedman, S., et al., Work & Life: The End of the Zero-Sum Game, Harvard Business Rev., Nov-Dec. 1998, pp 119-129.

Froom, J., Bickel, J., Medical School Policies for Part-time Faculty Committed to Full Professional Effort, Acad. Med., 71:91-6, 1996.

Gjerberg, E. and Kjolsrod, L., The Doctor-nurse Relationship: How Easy is it to be a Female Doctor Co-operating with a Female Nurse?, Soc Sci & Med. 52:189-202, 2001.

Heim, P., In the company of women: turning workplace conflict into powerful alliances. Tarcher/Putnam, 2001.

Heim, P., Hardball for Women: Winning at the Game of Business, NY: Penguin, 1993.

Hirsch, G., Strategic Career Management for the 21 st Century Physician. Chicago: American Medical Association, 2000.

Hitchcock, M.A., Bland, C.J. et al., Professional Networks: The Influence of Colleagues on the Academic Success of Faculty, Acad. Med., 70:1108-16, 1995.

Holves-Rovner, M., et al., Compensation Equity between Men and Women in Academic Medicine: Methods and Implications, Acad. Med., 69:131-7, Feb. 1994.

Jacobs, C., et al., Impact of a Program to Diminish Gender Insensitivity and Sexual Harassment at a Medical School, Acad. Med., 75:464-469, 2000.

Jamieson, K., Beyond the Double Bind: Women & Leadership, NY: Oxford U. Press, 1995.

Johnson, Allan. The Gender Knot: Unraveling our Patriarchal Legacy Phila: Temple U Press, 1997.

Kaltreider, Nancy B., Dilemmas of a Double Life, Women Balancing Careers and Relationship, Jason Aronson, Inc., 1997.

Kaplan, S. H., et al., Sex Differences in Academic Advancement: Results of a National Study of Pediatricians, New England Journal of Medicine, 335:282-1289, 1996.

Kimmel, M. The Gendered Society, Oxford U Press, 2000.

Kvaerner, K., et al., Female Medical Leadership: Cross-Sectional Study, Brit. Med. J. 318:91-4, 1999.

Limacher, M.,et al., The ACC Professional Life Survey: Career Decisions of Women and Men in Cardiology, J. Am. Coll. Cardiology, 32:827-835, 1998.

McCorduck, P. and Ramsey, N., The Futures of Women: Scenarios for the 21 st Century, New York, NY: Warner Books, 1996.

McElvaine, R., Eve’s seed: biology, the sexes and the course of history, McGraw-Hill, 2001.

McMurray, J.E., et al., The Work Lives of Women Physicians: Results from the Physician Work Life Study, J Gen Intern Med, 15:372-380, 2000.

Meyerson, D., Tempered Radicals: how people use difference to inspire change at work, Harvard Bus Schl Press, 2001.

Meyerson, D., J. Fletcher, A Modest Manifesto for Shattering the Glass Ceiling, Harvard Business Review, Jan/Feb. 2000, pp. 127-36.

Mindell, P., How to Say it for Women: Communicating with Confidence and Power, Prentice Hall, 2001.

Morahan, P and J. Bickel, Capitalizing on Women's Intellectual Capital, Acad Med, 77:110-2, 2002.

Morahan, P. et al. Ensuring successful women faculty to meet the needs of academic medical centers. Acad Med, 2001;76:19-31

More, S. E., Restoring the Balance: Women Physicians and the Profession of Medicine, 1850-1995, Harvard U. Press, 2000.

Ness, R.B., et al., Salary Equity among Male and Female Internists in Pennsylvania, Ann Intern Med, 133:104-110, 2000.

Nonnemaker, L., Women Physicians in Academic Medicine: New Insights from Cohort Studies, N Engl J Med, 342:399-405, 2000.

Reardon, K: The secret handshake: mastering the politics of the business inner circle, NY: Doubleday, 2001.

Reed, V, Buddeberg-Fischer, B., Career obstacles for women in medicine: an overview. Med Educ. 35:139-47, 2001.

Rhode, D., Speaking of Sex: The Denial of Gender Inequality, Cambridge, MA: Harvard U. Press, 1997.

Richman, R., Morahan, P, Cohen, DW et al., Advancing women and closing the leadership gap: the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program Experience. J. of Women’s Health & Gender-Based Medicine, 10:271-277, 2001.

Schapiro, N., Negotiating for Your Life: New Success Strategies for Women, NY: Henry Holt Co., 1993.

Schiebinger, L., Has Feminism Changed Science?, Cambridge, MA: Harvard U. Press, 1997.

Socolar, R.S., et al., Institutional Policies of U.S. Medical Schools Regarding Tenure, Promotion, and Benefits for Part-time Faculty, Acad. Med., 75:846-849, 2000.

Stone, D., Difficult Conversations: How to discuss what matters most. Penguin, 1999.

Stuart, R., Organizational approaches to building gender equity in Made to Measure: Women, Gender & Equity edited by C. Amartunga, Maritime Center of Excellence for Women’s Health, 2000.

Tannen, D., Talking from 9 to 5: Language, Sex & Power, New York: Avon, 1995.

Tesch, B, Nattinger, A., Career Advancement and Gender in Academic Medicine, J. Irish Colleges of Phys. & Surg. 26:172-6, July 1997.

Thomas, D.A., The Truth About Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters, Harvard Business Review, pp. 99-107, April 2001.

Valian, V., Why So Slow: The Advancement of Women, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1998.

Wear, D., editor, Women in Medical Education: An Anthology of Experience, Albany: SUNY Press, 1996.

Wenneras, C, Wold, A. Nepotism and Sexism in Peer Review, Nature, 387:341-3. 5/22/1997.

Williams, J. Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to do about it, Oxford U Press, 2000.

Yedidia, M and Bickel, J. Why Aren’t There More Women Leaders in Academic Medicine?: The Views of Clinical Chairs Acad Med, 76:453-65,2001

OTHER RELEVANT BOOKS

Howe, N. and Strauss, W., Millenials Rising: The Next Great Generation, New York: William Morrow, 1991.

Lancaster, L.C., and Stillman, When Generations Collide, New York: HarperBusiness, 2002.

Meller, G., and Kao, J., Setting the Stage for Innovative Action, The Physician Executive, 24-28, July/August 2002.

Noble, D.F., A World Without Women: The Christian Clerical Culture of Western Science, Oxford University Press, 1993.

O’Connor, E.J., and Fiol, C.M., Mindful Over Mindless: Learning to Think Like an Entrepreneur, The Physician Executive, 18-23, July/August 2002.

Smith, J.W., and Churman, A., Rocking the Ages: The Yankelovich Report on Generational Marketing, New York: HarperBusiness, 1997.

Strauss, W. and Howe, N., Generations: The History of America’s Future 1584 to 2069, New York: William Morrow, 1991.

Compiled by Janet Bickel, Associate Vice President, Assoc Amer Med Colleges, 8/02

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PART-TIME TENURE

1. Drago, R, Williams, J. A Half-Time Tenure Track Proposal. Change, 2000; 32:46-51.

In this article, Drago and Williams apply the concepts from Williams’ outstanding “must-read” book (Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do About It. Oxford University Press: NY, 2000) to academic tenure. Women faculty will continue to lag behind males in achieving tenure as long as the ideal academic is defined as someone who takes little time off for childrearing. The authors suggest redefining the ideal worker in academia by offering proportional pay, benefits, and advancement for part-time work. This article is particularly useful for its succinct analysis of the issues, and for its presentation of a detailed model half-time tenure track policy.

2. Froom JD, Bickel J. Medical school policies for part-time faculty committed to full professional effort. Academic Medicine, 1996; 71:91-6.

Building on the AAMC's 1993-94 survey of faculty appointment and tenure policies, in 1994 the authors surveyed 102 U.S. and Canadian medical schools reporting provisions for part-time faculty. Of the 71 survey respondents, 32 of these (45%) had developed specific procedures for "full professional effort" (FPE) faculty. Thirty-one of the 71 schools responding (44%) reported that FPE faculty could be appointed to, or remain on, a tenure track. Nineteen of these 31 schools also reported lengthening the probationary period on a prorated basis. Women, much more frequently than men, had chosen the FPE option, especially women clinical faculty. This core article contributes substantially to the literature by defining subtypes of part-time faculty and gathering survey data specific to the FPE (“sunlighter”) subtype. They also discuss issues such as the “second-class citizen” syndrome experienced by FPE faculty.

3. Levinson W, Kaufman K, Bickel J. Part-time faculty in academic medicine: present status and future challenges. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1993; 119:220-5.

Of an estimated 400 part-time faculty in U.S. departments of medicine, 245 responded to a survey (69% return rate) about working conditions, attitudes toward professional and personal issues, and institutional policies. Sixty-three percent were men and 27% were women. Women faculty worked an average of 35 h/wk, combining their careers with childbearing, whereas men worked 51 h/wk, divided between their faculty position and private practice. Respondents' work time was devoted to teaching and patient care, with no time dedicated for research. Most faculty (86%) were in nontenured track positions. Only 8% reported that existing institutional policies allowed part-time faculty more time to reach promotion and tenure standards. A high degree of career satisfaction existed (mean score, 8.6 on a 10-point scale) even though faculty believe that part-time status makes promotion more difficult and negatively influences colleagues' perceptions of them. This article may not be generalizable beyond internal medicine, but it is a recent national study that succeeds in its effort to characterize part-time faculty. It provides an interesting comparison to the University of Illinois sample discussed in my paper.

4. Potee RA, Gerber AJ, Ickovics JR. Medicine and motherhood: shifting trends among female physicians from 1922 to 1999. Academic Medicine, 1999; 74:911-9.

The authors surveyed 863 women who matriculated at Yale University School of Medicine from 1922 to 1999. They requested information on personal and professional demographics, career satisfaction, child rearing, and childbearing. Of the 586 responding women (70% response rate), 82% of those over 40 were mothers. Between 1950 and 1989, 42% of the women with children had them during medical training. More absolute numbers of women are having children during medical training, increasing the demand for longer leaves, greater training flexibility, and childcare opportunities. Recommendations for changes that recognize these trends are provided. Although this article may not apply beyond Yale, the survey is well-designed, serves as a wake-up call to those who have not noted the trend toward child-bearing during training, and has a practical and relevant discussion section (not coincidentally, the first two authors are in residency and medical school, respectively).

5. Socolar RR, Kelman LS, Lannon CM, Lohr JA. Institutional policies of U.S. medical schools regarding tenure, promotion, and benefits for part-time faculty. Academic Medicine, 2000; 75:846-9.

The authors collected survey data on institutional policies regarding tenure, promotions, and benefits for part-time faculty at U.S. medical schools. Fifty-eight of 104 respondents from 126 medical schools had written policies about tenure, promotion, or benefits for part-time faculty. Of the 95 medical schools with tenure systems, 25 allowed part-time faculty to get tenure, but only 23 allowed part-time status as a reason to slow the tenure clock. The authors conclude that most medical schools do not have policies that foster tenure for part-time faculty, although many allow for promotion and offer a variety of benefits to part-time faculty. This study builds on the survey by Froom and Bickel by collecting and analyzing additional data about part-time faculty policies. Their distinction between policies fostering tenure versus promotion for part-time faculty is also valuable.

6. Bickel J, Wara D, Atkinson BF, Cohen LS, Dunn M, Hostler S, Johnson TR, Morahan P, Rubenstein AH, Sheldon GF, Stokes E. Increasing women's leadership in academic medicine: report of the AAMC Project Implementation Committee. Academic Medicine, 2002; Oct; 77(10):1043-61.

The AAMC's Increasing Women's Leadership Project Implementation Committee examined four years of data on the advancement of women in academic medicine. With women comprising only 14% of tenured faculty and 12% of full professors, the committee concluded that the progress achieved was inadequate. The committee made specific recommendations to improve the situation:

  •  Emphasize faculty diversity in departmental reviews;
  • Target women's professional development needs and improve mentorship;
  •  Change institutional practices that tend to favor men's over women's professional development, such as “rewarding unrestricted availability to work,” ie, neglect of personal life;
  • Redefine search committee processes and criteria;
  • Monitor on a continuing basis the representation of women at senior levels; provide financial support of institutional Women in Medicine programs.

This article’s emphasis on changing institutional practice in support of work-family balance, in order to increase the number of women leaders, lends support to consideration of a pro-rated tenure track option.

7. Carr PL, Ash AS, Friedman RH, Scaramucci A, Barnett RC, Szalacha L, Palepu A, Moskowitz MA. Relation of family responsibilities and gender to the productivity and career satisfaction of medical faculty. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1998; Oct 1;129(7):532-8.

The authors surveyed 1979 respondents from a sample of full-time academic medical school faculty in 24 U.S. medical schools. The 177-item survey questionnaire examined dependent responsibilities by gender, and identified their relation to the aspirations, goals, rate of progress, academic productivity, and career satisfaction of male and female medical school faculty. The survey found that, for both male and female faculty, more than 90% of time devoted to family responsibilities was spent on childcare. Among faculty with children, women had greater obstacles to academic careers and less institutional support than men. Compared with men with children, women with children had fewer publications, slower self-perceived career progress, and lower career satisfaction. However, no significant differences between the sexes were seen for faculty without children. The authors conclude that female faculty with children face major obstacles in academic careers, and suggest simple modifications to overcome these obstacles, including the creation of part-time career tracks.

8. Socolar RR, Kelman LS. Part-time faculty in academic pediatrics, medicine, family medicine, and surgery: the views of the chairs. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 2002; Sep-Oct;2(5):406-13.

The authors surveyed all chairs of U.S. departments of pediatrics, medicine, family medicine, and surgery. Chairs from 308 (59%) of 519 departments completed the survey. Overall, 85% of responding departments employed part-time faculty (50-100% time appointments). The average rating for satisfaction with part-time faculty was between “very satisfied” and “satisfied.” The most frequently cited advantages of employing part-time faculty were keeping talented people in the workforce who might otherwise leave; leveraging financial resources; and skills of part-time faculty. The most frequently cited disadvantages were less academic productivity of part-time faculty and lack of shared goals/values of part-time faculty with the department. Overall, more advantages than disadvantages were cited. Part-time faculty tended to have lower academic rank than full-time faculty. Interestingly, more absolute numbers of men than women worked part time, but the percentage of women choosing part time employment was equal to or greater than that of men. This study provides demographics of part time COM faculty, and demonstrates that the contributions of these faculty members are valued by their department leadership, despite their reduced academic productivity within the current system.